|TUBERCULIN SENSITIVITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN (0-4 YEARS
OLD) AS AN INDEX OF TUBERCULOSIS IN THE COMMUNITY.
|NL Bordia, Anton Geser, J Maclary, I Mundt & Kul
Bhushan: Indian J TB 1960, 8, 25-43.
The purpose of this study was to find out whether
the prevalence of infection in young children might be used as an
index of the tuberculosis problem in a population. Tuberculin testing
was done in a random sample of 2,883 children (0-4 years) in Bangalore
city, of those 2,589 (89.8%) actually completed testing. A total
of 4340 children were registered in 59 villages and of these 4090
(94.2%) were tuberculin tested. The villages were from Bangalore,
Kolar and Mandya as these districts were within 100 miles from Bangalore
city. The team went from house to house and made a complete registration
of the children 0-4 years in the selected houses. Information on
socio-economic status, density of population etc., was also collected
before giving tuberculin 1 TU RT 23 with Tween 80.
The results of the study showed that prevalence
of infection in 0-4 years age group of cantonment area was 1.6%
and in the crowded city area 4.1% at 14mm induration level. In the
rural population, the prevalence of tuberculosis infection was 2%.
In the city, a positive correlation between tuberculosis infection
and socio-economic condition was obtained while it was not seen
in rural areas. It was not possible to establish any correlation
between tuberculosis disease and infection either in rural or urban
areas, as the population was not examined for the prevalence of
|KEY WORDS: PREVALENCE, INFECTION, CHILDREN,
RURAL, URBAN, COMMUNITY.
|SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TUBERCULOUS DISEASE
AND INFECTION IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP IN A RURAL COMMUNITY
|GD Gothi, SS Nair & Pyare Lal: Indian Paediatrics
1971, 8, 186-94.
The prevalence and incidence rates of tuberculous
infection and disease in the community are known in the age group
10 years and above from several surveys carried out so far. The
present paper provides various parameters of tuberculosis in particular
in the pediatric age group. A random sample of 119 villages in 3
taluks of Bangalore district were surveyed 4 times from May 1961
to July 1968 at intervals of 18 months, 3 years and 5 years of the
initial survey. Tuberculin test was done for the entire available
population with 1 TU PPD RT 23 with Tween 80, and 70mm X-ray for
all available persons aged 5 years and above. Two samples of sputum
were obtained from the X-ray abnormals, and examined by smear and
It was found that prevalence of infection increased
with age from 2.1% at 0-4 year age group to 16.5% at 10-14 year
age group, compared to 47% at 15 years and above age group. Prevalence
of disease in 5-14 year age group was considerably lower than in
age group 15 years or more. Tuberculosis morbidity increased with
the size of tuberculin reaction and it was high among children with
reaction 20mm or more. Incidence of infection increased with age
from 0.9% per year in age group 0-4 years to 2.8% per year among
that of 15 years and above. Incidence of disease also showed the
same phenomenon-, rising from 0.5% in age group 5-9 to 4% per year
in the age group 15 years and above. There were 10 sputum positive
cases in 5-14 years of age in first survey, of them, 8 became negative
and one died. While from among 152 cases in 15 years and above age
group, 48 became negative, 72 died and 32 remained positive. The
fate of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in 5-14 years age was not
as serious as in 15 years and above age group. The survey had no
means of examining miliary and meningeal tuberculosis.
Children as well as adults with larger reaction
of 20mm or more to tuberculin test had higher mortality. This could
be considered due to tuberculous infection after taking into account
death due to non- tuberculous reasons in both the infected and uninfected
groups. Use of chemoprophylaxis might be considered for those who
give history of contact with open cases and have tuberculin reaction
size 20mm or more.
|KEYWORDS: CHILDREN, RURAL COMMUNITY, PREVALANCE,
INCIDENCE, INFECTION, DISEASE, TUBERCULIN, INDURATION SIZE, MORTALITY,
|TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN IN A SLUM COMMUNITY
|GD Gothi, Benjamin Isaac, AK Chakraborty, R Rajalakshmi
& Sukant Singh: Indian J TB 1977, 24, 68-74.
A study was conducted in a slum area of Bangalore,
to get information on the prevalence of all forms of tuberculosis
in 0-4 year age group, respiratory tuberculosis in 5-14 year age
group and the proportion of respiratory tuberculosis among total
respiratory diseases in 0-14 year age group. Entire population in
a slum area was investigated. Children aged 0-9 years were given
tuberculin test and their nutritional status assessed. All persons
were X-rayed. Sputum specimens were collected from those having
radiological abnormality in chest, chest symptoms of one week or
more in 0-4 years, in addition from those with any kind of sickness,
malnutrition and tuberculin reactors.
In 0-9 year age group, 5.5% were tuberculin positive
(without BCG lesions), in 0-4 years, 1.8% and 5-9 years, 11.3%.
Among the X-rayed children, 47.4% had some kind of sickness, the
proportion being significantly high in 0-4 year age group. The respiratory
sickness is the commonest among children of all ages followed by
malnutrition (21%). Among children with chest symptoms, upper respiratory
infections were 33%. Chest X-ray abnormalities were present in 4.5%
of children and of these 82.5% had non-specific pneumonitis. Of
71 persons with respiratory disease, about 7% were tuberculous.
Out of 1408 children, only 5 had active primary tuberculosis, giving
a prevalence of 0.35%. None in 0-4 year age had sputum positive
disease or extra pulmonary tuberculosis.
It has been highlighted that non-tuberculous chest
diseases are common in pediatric age group and many of these may
be wrongly classified as active tuberculous in practice. It is concluded
that tuberculosis in the pediatric age group in this community is
not a serious public health problem.
|KEY WORDS: CHILDREN, SLUM COMMUNITY, PREVALENCE,
INFECTION, PEDIATRIC TUBERCULOSIS.
|REPORT ON THE FIRST AND SECOND PASSIVE FOLLOW-UPS
OF CHILD POPULATION IN 0-14 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF BANGALORE
|S Dwarakanath, Sukant Singh and R Rajalakshmi: NTI
Newsletter 1977, 14, 97-104.
The findings of the two follow-ups conducted passively,
in a slum area of Bangalore city, each at an interval of one year,
are presented here. The objectives of the follow-ups were to study
the migration, episodes of sickness and health status of sick people
of initial survey over a period of time in the pediatric age group.
The information was collected by two ways: (1) by visiting each
house to collect information on sickness among them during the preceding
year as per the questionnaire. (2) Going through the records of
the Area Health Centre about various morbidities among the residents
of the area pertaining to symptoms, diagnosis and treatment during
any year noted.
Migration had occurred upto 7% in 0-9 year age
group within first year and no migration during second year in 0-4
year age group. Out of 400 children belonging to 0-14 years, had
symptoms related to respiratory system. In all, 5 children were
diagnosed as case of active primary tuberculosis, non-e died in
two years and one had persistent respiratory symptoms. Hospital
records showed that only 1 out of 5 had attended any health facility
with respiratory symptoms. The usefulness of passive follow-up without
clinical investigations as a tool, needs to be reviewed. Most of
the symptomatics do not go to hospital. Diagnosis cannot be arrived
at by passive follow-up. It may be necessary to decrease the interval
of follow-ups if it is desired to get precise idea on frequency
of episodes of sickness, as most of the sicknesses are forgotten
by the population with passage of time.
|KEY WORDS: PASSIVE FOLLOW-UP, URBAN, SLUM COMMUNITY,
CHILDREN, SICKNESS, MIGRATION.