|TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN IN A SLUM COMMUNITY
|GD Gothi, Benjamin Isaac, AK Chakraborty, R Rajalakshmi
& Sukant Singh: Indian J TB 1977, 24, 68-74.
A study was conducted in a slum area of Bangalore,
to get information on the prevalence of all forms of tuberculosis
in 0-4 year age group, respiratory tuberculosis in 5-14 year age
group and the proportion of respiratory tuberculosis among total
respiratory diseases in 0-14 year age group. Entire population in
a slum area was investigated. Children aged 0-9 years were given
tuberculin test and their nutritional status assessed. All persons
were X-rayed. Sputum specimens were collected from those having
radiological abnormality in chest, chest symptoms of one week or
more in 0-4 years, in addition from those with any kind of sickness,
malnutrition and tuberculin reactors.
In 0-9 year age group, 5.5% were tuberculin positive
(without BCG lesions), in 0-4 years, 1.8% and 5-9 years, 11.3%.
Among the X-rayed children, 47.4% had some kind of sickness, the
proportion being significantly high in 0-4 year age group. The respiratory
sickness is the commonest among children of all ages followed by
malnutrition (21%). Among children with chest symptoms, upper respiratory
infections were 33%. Chest X-ray abnormalities were present in 4.5%
of children and of these 82.5% had non-specific pneumonitis. Of
71 persons with respiratory disease, about 7% were tuberculous.
Out of 1408 children, only 5 had active primary tuberculosis, giving
a prevalence of 0.35%. None in 0-4 year age had sputum positive
disease or extra pulmonary tuberculosis.
It has been highlighted that non-tuberculous chest
diseases are common in pediatric age group and many of these may
be wrongly classified as active tuberculous in practice. It is concluded
that tuberculosis in the pediatric age group in this community is
not a serious public health problem.
|KEY WORDS: CHILDREN, SLUM COMMUNITY, PREVALENCE,
INFECTION, PEDIATRIC TUBERCULOSIS.
|REPORT ON THE FIRST AND SECOND PASSIVE FOLLOW-UPS
OF CHILD POPULATION IN 0-14 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF BANGALORE
|S Dwarakanath, Sukant Singh and R Rajalakshmi: NTI
Newsletter 1977, 14, 97-104.
The findings of the two follow-ups conducted passively,
in a slum area of Bangalore city, each at an interval of one year,
are presented here. The objectives of the follow-ups were to study
the migration, episodes of sickness and health status of sick people
of initial survey over a period of time in the pediatric age group.
The information was collected by two ways: (1) by visiting each
house to collect information on sickness among them during the preceding
year as per the questionnaire. (2) Going through the records of
the Area Health Centre about various morbidities among the residents
of the area pertaining to symptoms, diagnosis and treatment during
any year noted.
Migration had occurred upto 7% in 0-9 year age
group within first year and no migration during second year in 0-4
year age group. Out of 400 children belonging to 0-14 years, had
symptoms related to respiratory system. In all, 5 children were
diagnosed as case of active primary tuberculosis, non-e died in
two years and one had persistent respiratory symptoms. Hospital
records showed that only 1 out of 5 had attended any health facility
with respiratory symptoms. The usefulness of passive follow-up without
clinical investigations as a tool, needs to be reviewed. Most of
the symptomatics do not go to hospital. Diagnosis cannot be arrived
at by passive follow-up. It may be necessary to decrease the interval
of follow-ups if it is desired to get precise idea on frequency
of episodes of sickness, as most of the sicknesses are forgotten
by the population with passage of time.
|KEY WORDS: PASSIVE FOLLOW-UP, URBAN, SLUM COMMUNITY,
CHILDREN, SICKNESS, MIGRATION.
|EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS ON DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY
DUE TO TUBERCULIN TEST IN CHILDREN OF AN URBAN SLUM COMMUNITY
|AK Chakraborty, KT Ganapathy & R Rajalakshmi: Indian
J TB 1980, 27, 115-19.
Prevalence of tuberculous infection in young children
is an important surveillance measure. However, the hypersensitivity
may be depressed by malnutrition and thus interfere with the interpretation
of tuberculin test leading to underestimation of the infection rate.
Objective of this investigation was to study the relationship between
tuberculin reaction with 1 TU RT 23 and nutritional status of children.
The study was carried out in 1974 among children aged 1-9 years
of age living in an urban slum area of Bangalore city and who were
not given BCG vaccination.
Of the 1151 registered children aged 0-9 years,
482 in the age group 1-4 and 526 in 5-9 years formed the study group.
Of these 1008 children, 980 had both clinical evaluation and anthropometric
measurement for nutritional status and 963 had both tuberculin test
readings and anthropometric measurements carried out for them. Of
the 482 children aged 1-4 years, 230 were classified as suffering
from Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM) and of the 498 in the 5-9
years of age, 227 were classified as suffering from PCM. Distribution
of tuberculin test indurations in mm among the normals and the undernourished
were compared; no significant difference in the mean size of tuberculin
indurations as well as in the distributions of these indurations
was observed, regardless of the method used for arriving at the
|KEY WORDS: NUTRITIONAL STATUS, TUBERCULIN REACTION,
SLUM COMMUNITY, INFECTION.