a) Community Survey Based
AU : Banerji D & Andersen S
TI : A sociological study of the awareness of symptoms among persons with pulmonary tuberculosis
SO : BULL WHO 1963, 29, 665-683.
DT : Per
AB :

This study was undertaken in 34 villages and 4 town blocks where a few weeks earlier an epidemiological survey was carried out. All persons above 20 years whose photofluorograms were read as inactive, probably active, or active by at least one reader, were age-sex matched with an equal number of X-ray normals, to form the experimental and control groups respectively. Thus, a total of 2,106 were eligible for social investigation. Interview sheets, with particulars of the name and location of village, household number and individual number and the identifiable data of the interviewees were made available to the Social Investigators at random for contacting and interviewing them at their homes. The interviews were non-suggestive in nature and deep-probing on the details of symptoms experienced by the respondent, which were fully recorded. About 79% of the experimental group and 83% of the control group were satisfactorily interviewed, which constituted the data further analysed. Of the numerous symptoms recorded, only that were associated with pulmonary TB were considered, of which cough occurring for one month or more, fever for a month or more, pain in the chest, haemoptysis and all combination of these four symptoms were analysed statistically.

Cough was found to be the most important single symptom. It was not only the most frequent symptom alone or in combination in the experimental group but was less frequent in the control group that 69% of sputum positive and 46% of radiological positive had cough while only 9% of the control group had it. Considerably fewer people had fever and pain in the chest. Pain in the chest appears to be non-specific, giving a ratio of only 2:1 among the experimental and control groups, while fever was in the ratio of 6:1 and haemoptysis was 11:1. It was seen that 69% of the sputum positive cases, 52% of the X-ray active or probably active, 29% of the inactive and 15% of the normals (control group) had at least one of the above mentioned symptoms. In all the groups, the proportion of symptoms was higher among males than among females. In both males and females the prevalence of symptoms was higher in the middle age groups than among the younger or older groups. This age variation was more marked in the females. The findings of the study were analysed further along with the data obtained from a couple of minor investigations conducted in the rest of the 28 villages which formed the total of the villages surveyed epidemiologically. This brought out further that 95% of bacteriologically positive cases are aware of symptoms, 72% experience 'worry awareness' and 52% form the action-taking group. The above findings have been of considerable importance in planning further studies and in formulating the NTP.