c) Behavioural And Psychological Factors
AU : Yadav BS, Jain SC, Sharma G, Mehrotra ML & Aditya Kumar
TI : Psychiatric morbidity in pulmonary tuberculosis.
SO : INDIAN J TB 1980, 27, 167-171.
DT : Per
AB :

Two hundred and seventy two patients with pulmonary TB (with positive sputum) contacting the TB Demonstration and Training Centre cum Chest Institute, Agra and selected through a specified sampling procedure, were subjected to detailed psychiatric screening. Those suspected to be suffering from a psychiatric condition were assessed by a second psychiatrist for diagnostic reliability. Eighty patients were found to be suffering from a psychiatric condition in addition to pulmonary TB giving a psychiatric morbidity rate of 294.12 per thousand, which was much higher than the rates in the general population of comparable age group as found in various studies. When compared to their counterparts, psychiatric break down was more frequent among those patients who had concomitant physical illnesses, special strains and severe anxieties and, those who were housewives.


AU : Westaway MS & Wolmarans L
TI : Cognitive and affective reactions of black urban South African towards tuberculosis.
SO : TUBERCLE & LUNG DIS 1994, 75, 447-453.
DT : Per
AB :

It was hypothesised that cognitive and affective reactions towards TB were based on perceived prevalence, perceived seriousness and perceived social stigma. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the underlying dimensions that were used when people reacted cognitively and emotionally to TB, and to determine possible restricting social influence factors on voluntary presentation and case holding. Therefore, a questionnaire was designed to obtain information on background details, perceptions of TB (transmission, prevention, diagnosis and treatment), and a 19-item cognitive affective scale. 19 trained interviewers administered the questionnaire. Interviews were conducted with 487 black adults (67 TB patients on ambulatory therapy and 420 non-TB community members), from two urban townships in the Transvaal, South Africa.

The results indicated that the majority of respondents were aware of the infectious nature of TB, that it could be cured and the length of treatment. The most problematic issues were isolation for TB sufferers and the harm TB sufferers did to others. Cognitive/affective reactions were similar for TB patients and community members. Ten items out of the 19-item cognitive affective scale had communality estimates equal to or greater than 0.30. Three factors were extracted. The first factor seemed to combine personal threat (high personal and family risk) with social rejection by the immediate family and community for TB sufferers. Factor 2 had strong overtones of social stigma, with its emphasis on dirt, poverty and poor nutrition. Factor 3 rejected alcohol and tobacco consumption as causal agents of TB.

The conclusions were that the predominant cognitive/affective reactions towards TB were personal threat, social rejection and social stigma, providing partial support for the hypothesis. The powerful force of social rejection and social stigma cannot be underestimated. These inhibiting factors require urgent attention to improve voluntary presentation and compliance behaviour.