||Yadav BS, Jain SC, Sharma G, Mehrotra ML & Aditya
||Psychiatric morbidity in pulmonary tuberculosis.
||INDIAN J TB 1980, 27, 167-171.
Two hundred and seventy two patients with pulmonary
TB (with positive sputum) contacting the TB Demonstration and Training
Centre cum Chest Institute, Agra and selected through a specified
sampling procedure, were subjected to detailed psychiatric screening.
Those suspected to be suffering from a psychiatric condition were
assessed by a second psychiatrist for diagnostic reliability. Eighty
patients were found to be suffering from a psychiatric condition
in addition to pulmonary TB giving a psychiatric morbidity rate
of 294.12 per thousand, which was much higher than the rates in
the general population of comparable age group as found in various
studies. When compared to their counterparts, psychiatric break
down was more frequent among those patients who had concomitant
physical illnesses, special strains and severe anxieties and, those
who were housewives.
|KEYWORDS: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY; MORBIDITY; COGNITION;
|| Westaway MS & Wolmarans L
||Cognitive and affective reactions of black urban South
African towards tuberculosis.
||TUBERCLE & LUNG DIS 1994, 75, 447-453.
It was hypothesised that cognitive and affective
reactions towards TB were based on perceived prevalence, perceived
seriousness and perceived social stigma. The objectives of the study
were to ascertain the underlying dimensions that were used when
people reacted cognitively and emotionally to TB, and to determine
possible restricting social influence factors on voluntary presentation
and case holding. Therefore, a questionnaire was designed to obtain
information on background details, perceptions of TB (transmission,
prevention, diagnosis and treatment), and a 19-item cognitive affective
scale. 19 trained interviewers administered the questionnaire. Interviews
were conducted with 487 black adults (67 TB patients on ambulatory
therapy and 420 non-TB community members), from two urban townships
in the Transvaal, South Africa.
The results indicated that the majority of respondents
were aware of the infectious nature of TB, that it could be cured
and the length of treatment. The most problematic issues were isolation
for TB sufferers and the harm TB sufferers did to others. Cognitive/affective
reactions were similar for TB patients and community members. Ten
items out of the 19-item cognitive affective scale had communality
estimates equal to or greater than 0.30. Three factors were extracted.
The first factor seemed to combine personal threat (high personal
and family risk) with social rejection by the immediate family and
community for TB sufferers. Factor 2 had strong overtones of social
stigma, with its emphasis on dirt, poverty and poor nutrition. Factor
3 rejected alcohol and tobacco consumption as causal agents of TB.
The conclusions were that the predominant cognitive/affective
reactions towards TB were personal threat, social rejection and
social stigma, providing partial support for the hypothesis. The
powerful force of social rejection and social stigma cannot be underestimated.
These inhibiting factors require urgent attention to improve voluntary
presentation and compliance behaviour.
|KEYWORDS: COGNITION; SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR; SOCIAL AWARENESS;