a) Sociological considerations
AU : Tardon CV
TI : The importance of the social sciences for the control of tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of the world.
SO : AME REV RESPIR DIS 1957, 75, 345-346.
DT : Per
AB :

The article is written in an era of hospitalization in the sixties, before domiciliary treatment was studied and recommended. The editor of the journal recommends that low resource countries should consider social aspects besides the economic ones for creation of hospital colonies for the treatment of TB. Without considering the local, social peculiarities of social and cultural heterogenecity, stigma, social competition and mortality, the efforts of segregation may represent greater hardships to an individual or to a family than the disease itself and a curtailed life. The editor quotes the plan approved by the Mexican National Security Administration which has included the social and other aspects besides economic ones. He recommended that social traits and local peculiarities to be kept in mind while formulating such plans. He further stresses that progress in the social sciences requires that, today, efforts for the control of TB be preceded in the underdeveloped area of the world by adequately integrated surveys of the whole situation in which the disease is transmitted. By temperament and by habit, administrators are fond of buildings and physical structures which demonstrate investment; but without basic objective knowledge of the people, of the spirit and structure of the society to which they belong, the buildings may remain deserted, and costly physical structures with all the niceties of modern science may be inadequate. That knowledge is today within our reach.


AU : Nagpaul DR
TI : Social research in tuberculosis.
SO : INDIAN J TB 1992, 39, 143-144.
DT : Per
AB :

In recent years, we have been pleading, unsuccessfully so far, for the development of sociological tools so that we can measure the extent of the disease both epidemiologically as well as sociologically. And, also for using the sociological parameters for assessing the impact of NTP. It stands to reason that long before the epidemiological parameters show an impact, a reduction in suffering as well as altered pattern of action-taking may show a change in the disease as it goes down and away in a country.


  b) Socio-Cultural, Socio-Economic & Demographic Aspects  
AU : Andersen S & Banerji D
TI : Report on a study of migration in four taluks of Bangalore district.
SO : POPULATION REVIEW 1962, 7, 69-72.
DT : Per
AB :

The purpose of the study was to establish the rate of emigration in a random selection of villages, with a view to forecast the likely loss of population in a follow-up study on BCG vaccination in the area. The study was carried out in the total population belonging to 35 villages of Channapatna, Devanahalli, Magadi and Nelamangala taluks of Bangalore district in April 1960. Demographic characteristics such as birth and death rates, immigration rates and proportion of persons temporarily absent, were also studied. The head of the household if absent, any other responsible adult was interviewed on a house-to-house basis, regarding the composition of the family, according to the NTI manual for census takers. Estimation of migration was to be based on the registered population of the current day, the population exactly one year ago and all relevant events during the intervening year.

The thirty five villages surveyed were found to have a population of 13,838 persons at the time of interview. This figure included: (A) 13138 persons in the household at the time of census taking also belonged to it one year ago. (B) 470 persons born during the past year. (C) 230 persons immigrated during the past year. (D) 200 persons dead during the past year. (E) 307 persons emigrated during the past year & (F) 770 persons temporarily absent. The net increase in the population from April 1959 to April 1960 was, 193 persons or 14 per thousand.

It was estimated that not more than 5% of the population would be lost by emigration over a period of two years. About 1/3rd of the emigration is within the same taluk. Only a small portion of the emigrants are above 30 years of age. It is also found that a good proportion of women's migration is due to marriage. The study findings revealed that the hypothesis that large number of people leave the village every year, making BCG coverage impossible could hardly be upheld.


a) Health Policy, Delivery of Health Services & Health Care
AU : Jagota P
TI : Sociological research conducted in the field of tuberculosis in India
SO : STC NEWSLETTER 1999, 9, 5-15
DT : Per
AB :

The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the sociological research on TB conducted in India between 1956-1998. Human suffering; health seeking behaviour, factors affecting and improving treatment compliance are the important sociological aspects of TB that have been investigated. The genesis of DOTS has been traced to the long-standing efforts to try different strategies to overcome the problems associated with treatment completion for e.g., development of supervised, intermittent and SCC regimens. Following are the salient conclusions given in this paper:

In the early 60s, the visionary approach of researchers to focus on the sociological and epidemiological aspects of TB ensured that the NTP, from its inception, was socially relevant and epidemiologically effective.
The level of knowledge of TB does not necessarily lead to patients seeking relief or taking treatment regularly. It is the physical suffering which is found to be associated with the action taking. Cough is found to be one of the most important chest symptoms of TB as it prompts patients to take action for relief.

Organizational and administrative factors such as insufficient facilities for management of TB, inadequate and irregular supply of anti-TB drugs, long distance to travel for seeking relief, drug intake or drug collection act as barriers and prevent patients to be adherent for treatment. Training of health providers is essential so that they give accurate advice to patients concerning treatment and manage the TB activities. Certain other actions to improve treatment adherence include decentralization of TB services while ensuring regular supervision of programme activities.

Increased research efforts in sociological aspects of TB are needed for successful implementation of DOTS programme. There is a need to explore the feasibility of including diverse groups such as private practitioners, social & leprosy workers and dais (birth attendants), as DOTS supervisor. We can also investigate the utilization of other agencies like STD booths and pan shops. The barriers to the expansion of DOTS programme should be removed.


  b) Community Participation & Role of Voluntary Organizations  
AU : Prafulla Chakrabarti
TI : Quantification and social research : a trend analysis.
SO : ECO & POL WEEKLY 1970, 5, 1571-1575.
DT : Per
AB :

The increasing volume of researches in the field of Indian social sciences calls for a close look at, besides other aspects, the methodology followed in them. This paper makes an attempt to examine the extent of application of quantitative methods of data collection and presentation in social science studies in India. A survey of 3907 published studies found that most of them were primarily of descriptive nature and devoid of any quantitative work. The orientation for quantitative research is the need of the hour.


Homo Visits by the team (Doctor, Public Health Nurse & Health Visitor)