b) Socio-Cultural, Socio-Economic & Demographic Aspects
AU : Andersen S & Banerji D
TI : Report on a study of migration in four taluks of Bangalore district.
SO : POPULATION REVIEW 1962, 7, 69-72.
DT : Per
AB :

The purpose of the study was to establish the rate of emigration in a random selection of villages, with a view to forecast the likely loss of population in a follow-up study on BCG vaccination in the area. The study was carried out in the total population belonging to 35 villages of Channapatna, Devanahalli, Magadi and Nelamangala taluks of Bangalore district in April 1960. Demographic characteristics such as birth and death rates, immigration rates and proportion of persons temporarily absent, were also studied. The head of the household if absent, any other responsible adult was interviewed on a house-to-house basis, regarding the composition of the family, according to the NTI manual for census takers. Estimation of migration was to be based on the registered population of the current day, the population exactly one year ago and all relevant events during the intervening year.

The thirty five villages surveyed were found to have a population of 13,838 persons at the time of interview. This figure included: (A) 13138 persons in the household at the time of census taking also belonged to it one year ago. (B) 470 persons born during the past year. (C) 230 persons immigrated during the past year. (D) 200 persons dead during the past year. (E) 307 persons emigrated during the past year & (F) 770 persons temporarily absent. The net increase in the population from April 1959 to April 1960 was, 193 persons or 14 per thousand.

It was estimated that not more than 5% of the population would be lost by emigration over a period of two years. About 1/3rd of the emigration is within the same taluk. Only a small portion of the emigrants are above 30 years of age. It is also found that a good proportion of women's migration is due to marriage. The study findings revealed that the hypothesis that large number of people leave the village every year, making BCG coverage impossible could hardly be upheld.

d) Health Economics
AU : Andersen S
TI : Some aspects of the economics of tuberculosis in India.
SO : Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Workers Conference, 18th, Bangalore, India, 16-19 Jan 1962, p. 204-212.
AB :

1The present paper describes certain economic aspects of TB in India, but does not attempt to combine them in a model. The estimated direct costs (beds, clinics, BCG campaign, drugs, private practitioners, after-care, social welfare etc. and research, training and administration) and indirect costs (disablement, premature death) of TB services of all kinds in India, based on known number of physical units multiplied by estimated average cost, have been calculated. These calculations demonstrated that the TB control programme which the NTP was proposing, was not substantially more expensive to the nation than existing TB services. It was concluded that a far higher government share would be economical and that district programmes utilising and promoting the development of basic, GHS would also be economical.


a) Community Survey Based
AU : Banerji D & Andersen S
TI : A sociological study of the awareness of symptoms among persons with pulmonary tuberculosis
SO : BULL WHO 1963, 29, 665-683.
DT : Per
AB :

This study was undertaken in 34 villages and 4 town blocks where a few weeks earlier an epidemiological survey was carried out. All persons above 20 years whose photofluorograms were read as inactive, probably active, or active by at least one reader, were age-sex matched with an equal number of X-ray normals, to form the experimental and control groups respectively. Thus, a total of 2,106 were eligible for social investigation. Interview sheets, with particulars of the name and location of village, household number and individual number and the identifiable data of the interviewees were made available to the Social Investigators at random for contacting and interviewing them at their homes. The interviews were non-suggestive in nature and deep-probing on the details of symptoms experienced by the respondent, which were fully recorded. About 79% of the experimental group and 83% of the control group were satisfactorily interviewed, which constituted the data further analysed. Of the numerous symptoms recorded, only that were associated with pulmonary TB were considered, of which cough occurring for one month or more, fever for a month or more, pain in the chest, haemoptysis and all combination of these four symptoms were analysed statistically.

Cough was found to be the most important single symptom. It was not only the most frequent symptom alone or in combination in the experimental group but was less frequent in the control group that 69% of sputum positive and 46% of radiological positive had cough while only 9% of the control group had it. Considerably fewer people had fever and pain in the chest. Pain in the chest appears to be non-specific, giving a ratio of only 2:1 among the experimental and control groups, while fever was in the ratio of 6:1 and haemoptysis was 11:1. It was seen that 69% of the sputum positive cases, 52% of the X-ray active or probably active, 29% of the inactive and 15% of the normals (control group) had at least one of the above mentioned symptoms. In all the groups, the proportion of symptoms was higher among males than among females. In both males and females the prevalence of symptoms was higher in the middle age groups than among the younger or older groups. This age variation was more marked in the females. The findings of the study were analysed further along with the data obtained from a couple of minor investigations conducted in the rest of the 28 villages which formed the total of the villages surveyed epidemiologically. This brought out further that 95% of bacteriologically positive cases are aware of symptoms, 72% experience 'worry awareness' and 52% form the action-taking group. The above findings have been of considerable importance in planning further studies and in formulating the NTP.